Radioterapi.se

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Glossary

 

 

GLOSSARY

Medical terms can be confusing if you have not come across them before. In this information centre we have tried to use everyday language, but there is no escape from some technical terms. To help as much as possible, unfamiliar words are highlighted in the text. Clicking on them will bring you to a short explanation of what the term means, which we have listed below in alphabetical order.


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0-9

5 Fluorouracil

5 Fluorouracil, or 5FU, is a drug usually given by injection and
used in chemotherapy to treat cancer in particular breast, bowel,
stomach and oesophageal cancers.

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A

 

Abdominal Cavity

The abdominal cavity is the part of the body between the chest and
the pelvis containing the stomach intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas,
kidneys and adrenal glands as well as blood, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and the omentum.

 

Acid Reflux

If the acid contents of the stomach flow back into the oesophagus,
it is referred to as acid reflux. The stomach produces hydrochloric
acid which is important in the digestion of food. Usually the acid
stomach contents cannot flow back into the oesophagus due to the presence of a valve, but if this fails to function the lining of the oesophagus can be damaged by acid reflux.

 

Acid Suppression

Acid production in the stomach can be reduced, or suppressed by various drugs usually in the treatment of acid reflux.

 

Acoustic Neuroma

Acoustic neuromas are benign tumours that develop in the nerve that
connects the ear to the brain (the acoustic nerve). Symptoms, when they
occur, include problems with hearing and balance. Acoustic neuromas are
also called vestibular schwannomas.

 

ACTH

ACTH is adrenocorticotropic hormone. It is produced in the pituitary gland and
stimulates the adrenal gland cortex to produce cortisol, a
corticosteroid hormone. Some tumours secrete ACTH, over stimulating the
adrenal cortex and resulting in too much cortisol being produced,
causing a condition called Cushing’s Syndrome.

 

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a form of cancer affecting the blood’s white cells,
which affects children and adults. Acute leukaemias develop quickly
causing a rapid onset of symptoms. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is
described fully in the section on leukaemias.

 

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukaemia is a form of cancer affecting blood’s white cells, called granulocytes, which mainly affects adults. Acute leukaemias develop quickly causing a rapid onset of symptoms.

Acute myeloid leukaemia is described fully in the section on leukaemias.

 

Adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop from cells lining the
body’s glands. There are main different types of adenocarcinoma which
grow and sread differently and are treated differently. Examples of
adenocarcinoma include some cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas,
prostate, breast and intestines.

 

Adenoma

An adenoma is a benign tumour arising from a gland. Adenomas can grow from the gut, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland and many other glands. Over time, adenomas may become malignant, when they are called adenocarcinomas.

 

Adjuvant Therapy

Adjuvant therapy is extra treatment given to stop a cancer
recurring. The exact treatment will depend in the cancer being treated
but adjuvant therapy may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, monoclonal antibodies or a mixture of these treatments.

 

Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands are triangle-shaped endocrine glands situated on top of both kidneys. They make corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol and adrenaline.

 

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone is produced in the pituitary gland and stimulates the adrenal gland cortex
to produce cortisol, a corticosteroid hormone. Some tumours secrete
ACTH, over stimulating the adrenal cortex and resulting in too much
cortisol being produced, causing a condition called Cushing’s Syndrome.

 

AIDS

AIDS is ‘acquired immunoeficiency disorder’ and is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In AIDS, the immune system fails to work effectively so the patient is
unable to fight infections normally. It is also associated with a rare
form of cancer Kaposi’s sarcoma.

 

Allogeneic Stem Cell

Allogeneic stem cell transplants are transplants of stem cells taken from one person and transplanted into someone else.

 

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Alpha-1 antitrypsin is an enzyme produced in the liver. Deficiency, or a lack of this enzyme, causes emphysema of the lungs.

 

Anaemia

Anaemia is a level of haemoglobin in the blood, which is lower than
normal. Haemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to all the other
tissues of the body. Mild anaemia may cause no symptoms but profound
anaemia may be dangerous.

 

Anaplastic

Anaplastic is a term used to describe tumours whose cells do not
look like the cells of the tissue they developed from. Anaplastic
tumours are usually faster growing forms of cancer.

 

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a fast growing lymphoma that mainly affects lymph nodes and
is treated with a variety of chemotherapy treatments, sometimes with
radiotherapy. Response to treatment is generally good. If the lymphoma
returns after initial treatment, a stem cell (bone marrow) transplant is one treatment option.

 

Antibodies

Antibodies are chemicals (proteins) produced in the body or in
laboratories to fight bacteria and viruses. They are an important part
of the body’s defence against infections.

 

Antioxidant Vitamins

Antioxidant vitamins are vitamins C, E and some forms of vitamin A.
These vitamins have a number of health benefits. There is evidence that
they are protective against developing some forms of cancer.

 

Astrocytes

Astrocytes are a type of glial cell found in the brain and spinal
cord. They are star shaped (hence the name) and form part of the
supporting structure within the central nervous system. Their functions are repair and nutrition. Astrocytes can give rise to tumours called astrocytomas.

 

Astrocytoma

Astrocytomas are tumours that develop from a type of glial cell called an astrocyte in the brain.

 

Autologous

Autologous means derived or transferred from the same individual’s body e.g. autologous blood transfusion, an autologous bone marrow transplant.

 

Axilla

The axilla is the armpit. It is important because it contains a number of lymph nodes which breast and some other cancers can spread to.

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B

 

B Cells

B-cells are a type of lymphocyte, which is a type of white cell found in the blood. B-cells produce antibodies against infection. They are called B-cells because they mature in the bone marrow. T-cells, the other form of lymphocyte, mature in the thymus.

 

Barium Enema

A barium enema is a special x-ray. A barium-based fluid is
introduced into the rectum and colon through the anus. As the barium
shows up very clearly on the x-ray, tumours in the bowel show up as
dark areas which the barium cannot fill.

 

Barrett’s Oesophagus

Barrett’s oesophagus is a pre-malignant or pre-cancerous condition of the oesophagus. 10% of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux are
affected by Barrett’s oesophagus, and of these 1% per year develop
cancer. Overall, Barrett’s oesophagus increases the risk of cancer by
about 30 times.

 

Benzene

Benzene is a known carcinogen, with the chemical formula C6H6. It is a colourless fluid, used as a solvent in a number of industrial processes.

 

Bevacizumab

Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody marketed
as Avastin and used in the treatment of advanced bowel cancer. It can
also be used in the treatment of breast, renal and non small cell lung
cancers.

 

Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide, marketed as Casodex, Cosudex, Calutide and Kalumid, is a drug used against prostate cancer.

 

Bile

Bile is a substance produced in the liver, containing bile acids
important in the digestion of fats as well as a number of waste
products.

 

Bile Duct

The bile duct is a tube linking the liver to the duodenum (part of the small intestine) and the gall bladder. Blockage of the bile duct causes jaundice.

 

Bilirubin

Bilirubin is the substance formed when red blood cells are broken down. Bilirubin is part of the bile, which is made in the liver and is stored in the gall bladder. The abnormal build-up of bilirubin causes jaundice.

 

Biopsy

A biopsy is the removal of a small sample of body tissue for examination, to assist in diagnosis.

 

Blast Phase

A phase of chronic myeloid leukaemia in which the number of immature, abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood is extremely high. This phase is also called blast crisis.

 

Bleomycin

Bleomycin is a drug given as a treatment for some types of cancer.

 

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood-brain barrier restricts the transfer of chemical
substances and microscopic objects (e.g. bacteria) from the bloodstream
to the brain, but allows the transfer of other substances essential to
metabolic function (e.g. oxygen).

 

Blood Platelets

Blood platelets are irregularly shaped, cell-like particles found in the blood that are important in blood clotting.

 

Bone Marrow

Bone marrow is found inside bones. It produces new blood cells.

 

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, or internal radiation therapy, is a type of radiation
therapy used to treat cancer and involves placing a radioactive
material inside the body.

 

Buccal Mucosa

The buccal mucosa is the lining of the cheeks and lips.

 

Burkitt’s Leukaemia

Burkitt’s leukaemia is a very rare, fast-growing type of leukemia
(blood cancer). Both Burkitt’s leukaemia and Burkitt’s lymphoma have
been linked to infection with the Epstein-Barr virus.

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C

 

Carbon 14 Therapy

Carbon 14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon, used in some forms of radiotherapy.

 

Carboplatin

Carboplatin is a form of Cisplatin. It is a chemotherapy drug used
against some forms of cancer (mainly ovarian carcinoma, lung, head and
neck cancers).

 

Carcinogen

A carcinogen is a substance known to cause cancer. Common examples include tobacco smoke, benzene and asbestos.

 

Carcinoma in situ

A carcinoma in situ is an area of abnormal cells that look like cancer cells but that has remained at the original site where it started.

 

Carcinoma of the Pancreas

Carcinoma of the pancreas is fully described on the section on pancreatic cancer.

 

Cartilage

Cartilage is a strong, flexible tissue commonly found in the joints,
on the ends of bones. It prevents friction in joints allowing them to
move smoothly, and gives shape to some external organs such as the ears
and nose.

 

Central Nervous System

The central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord.

 

Cerebrospinal Fluid

The cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid that flows in and around the
hollow spaces of the brain and the spinal cord, and between two of the meninges.

 

Cervarix®

Cervarix® is the registered trade name of a vaccine against certain types of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It is designed to prevent infection from types 16 and 18, which account for 70% of cervical cancer cases.

Cervical Canal

The cervical canal is on the inside of the cervix. It is the canal leading up into the uterus.

 

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is an abnormal growth of cells on
the cervix that may develop into cancer if not treated. It is usually
detected by a cervical smear.

 

Cervical Smear

A cervical smear is an examination of a woman’s cervix. A small
sample of cervical cells are taken using a tiny brush or spatula, and
smeared onto a glass slide to be analysed under a microscope.

 

Cetuximab

Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody, marketed as Erbitux, used in the treatment of cancer of the colon and rectum and cancer of the head and neck.

 

Chemoembolisation

Chemoembolisation is a type of treatment delivering drugs directly to a tumour site.

Chemoradiation

Chemoradiation, also known as chemoradiation therapy, is a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

 

Chlorambucil

Chlorambucil is a drug that has been used in the treatment of cancer, in particular, in the treatment of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) and some type of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

 

Cholangiosarcomas

A cholangiosarcoma is a tumour of the connective tissues of the bile ducts.

 

Chondrosarcoma

A chondrosarcoma is a form of cancer whose cells look like cartilage cells. It is described in more detail in the sarcoma section of this website.

 

Chronic Lymphatic Leukaemia (CLL)

Chronic Lymphatic Leukaemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukaemia affecting the lymphocytes. The lymphocytes multiply too quickly resulting in too many being present in the blood. It is described in more detail in the leukaemia section of this website.

 

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) is a form of leukaemia affecting white granulocytes. It is described in more detail in the leukaemia section of this website.

 

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver is the formation of scar tissue in the liver,
which impairs normal function of the organ. It can be caused by alcohol
abuse and chronic viral hepatitis.

 

Cisplatin

Cisplatin is a drug used to treat many types of cancer, which
contains the metal platinum. It kills cancer cells by damaging their
DNA and stopping them from dividing.

 

Clinical Psychologists

Clinical psychologists are health professionals who reduce
psychological distress due to anxiety, depression, relationship, and
other problems and enhance psychological wellbeing.

 

Co-Carcinogens

Co-carcinogens are substances that do not cause cancer on their own, but do cause cancer in combination with other substances.

 

Colon

The colon, or large intestine, is the lower part of the intestine
where water is absorbed from faeces. It is made up of the caecum,
ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon.

 

Colonoscope

A colonoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the colon. A colonoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

 

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is an examination of the inside of the colon using a flexible telescope, inserted through the anus. It is fitted witha light and a lens for viewing.

 

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that occurs in the colon or rectum, associated with eating a high-fat, low-fibre diet.

 

Colostomy

A colostomy is an opening of the colon onto the outside of the body,
usually on the front of the abdomen. A colostomy provides a new path
for faeces to leave the body and be collected in a bag.

 

Colposcope

A colposcope is a magnifying instrument used by gynaecologists to
examine the tissues of the vagina and cervix, and to detect areas of
abnormal cells.

 

Colposcopy

Colposcopy is a procedure gynaecologists perform using a colposcope to look at the tissues of the cervix and vagina to detect any abnormalities.

 

Concurrent Therapy

Concurrent therapy is a treatment that is given at the same time as another.

 

Consolidation Phase

The consolidation phase is the second phase of treatment in some forms of leukaemia.

 

Convulsions

Convulsions are uncontrolled movements of all or part of the body
due to repeated contraction and relaxation of the muscles, and caused
by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain.

 

Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are synthetic drugs that closely resemble cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. They are commonly used to treat inflammation of the joints and organs, as well as some forms of cancer.

 

Cowden Syndrome

Cowden Syndrome is an inherited disorder characterised by multiple,
benign growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of breast,
thyroid, uterine and gastrointestinal cancers.

 

Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are rare tumours that develop in the hypothalamus
region of the brain. They are usually benign but put pressure on other
parts of the brain as they increase in size.

 

Craniotomy

A craniotomy is an operation where a portion of the skull, (a bone flap), is removed temporarily to allow access to the brain.

 

Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is a freezing technique used to destroy abnormal cells.
An extremely cold liquid (liquid nitrogen) or instrument is used to
freeze the affected area.

 

CT (Computerised Tomography) Scan

A CT scan, or CAT scan, is a non-invasive test that provides clear
cross-sectional images (slices) of the inside of the body using
specialized x-ray equipment. This test can be used to identify cancers,
cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders.

 

Cyclophosphamide

Cyclophosphamide is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast, ovaries and bladder and chronic lymphatic leukaemia.

 

Cyst

A cyst is a closed sac or capsule that has a distinct membrane, and
separate from nearby tissues. It may contain air, fluids or semi-solid
material. NB. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst.

 

Cystitis

Cystitis is an infection of the bladder and causes a burning
sensation during urination and a need to urinate more often. It is
commonly caused by infection, but can be a side effect of radiotherapy.

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D

 

Dacarbazine

Dacarbazine is a drug that interferes with tumour cell growth and
impedes the formation of new tumour tissue. It is normally administered
by injection, or intravenous infusion (IV)

Dedifferentiated or High-Grade

This is a term to describe tumours with cells that do not closely resemble normal cells of that tissue type.

 

Digestive Enzymes

Digestive enzymes are enzymes that digest food so the body can
absorb it. They are secreted by glands in the mouth, stomach, pancreas
and small intestine.

 

Dioxins

Dioxins are chemicals that are formed during combustion processes.
Exposure to high levels of these causes an increased risk of cancer,
heart disease and diabetes.

 

Docetaxel

Docetaxel, commonly known as Taxotere, is a chemotherapy drug used
in the treatment of cancer of the breast and prostate and non-small
cell lung cancer.

 

Down’s Syndrome

Down’s syndrome is a condition caused by the presence of an extra
chromosome. It results in a characteristic appearance and can be
associated with delays in physical and mental development.

 

Doxorubicin

Doxorubicin is a chemotherapy drug used to treat many types of cancer.

 

Ductal Cancer

Ductal cancer is a cancer that develops in the milk ducts of the breast. It is described in more detail in the breast cancer section of this website.

 

Ductal Carcinoma in situ

A ductal carcinoma in situ, or DCIS, is a cancer that develops in the milk ducts of the breast but does not spread outside these ducts. It is described in more detail in the breast cancer section of this website.

 

Duodenum

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, where the later stages of digestion occur.

 

Dyskariosis

Dyskariosis, or dysplasia, is the term used to describe abnormal
changes in cells. These changes can be classed as mild, moderate or
severe depending on the depth of cells affected.

 

Dyskariotic Cells

Dyskariotic cells are abnormal cervical cells that look like cancer
cells but are not considered malignant as they do not invade nearby
healthy tissue.

 

Dysplastic Cells

Dysplastic cells are abnormal cervical cells that look like cancer
cells but are not considered malignant as they do not invade the
healthy tissue.

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E

 

Edrecolomab

Edrecolomab is a monoclonal antibody used in the detection and treatment of various cancers.

 

Endocervix

The endocervix is the inside of the cervix leading to the inside of the uterus.

 

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that develops in the tissue of the uterus. It is described in more detail in the uterine cancer section of this website.

 

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic technique for examination of the bile ducts and pancreas.

 

Endoscopy

An endoscopy involves looking inside the body using an instrument called an endoscope.

 

Ependymal Cells

Ependymal cells are cells that line the ventricles of the brain and
the central canal of the spinal cord. They are involved in the
production of cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Ependymoma

An ependymoma is a tumour that has developed from ependymal cells in the ventricles of the brain or canal of the spinal cord. It is described in more detail in the brain tumour section of this website.

 

Epirubicin

Epirubicin is a chemotherapy drug that is given as a treatment for many different types of cancer.

 

Epithelium

The epithelium is a tissue composed of layers of cells that line both the internal and external surfaces of the body.

Epstein-Barr Virus

The Epstein-Barr virus, (EBV), is a member of the herpes virus
family and one of the most common human viruses and auses infectious
mononucleosis and is associated with several different forms of cancer.

 

Erythroplakia

Erythroplakia is a pre-cancerous condition found in the mouth. It is a red lesion patch commonly attributed to smoking.

 

Etoposide

Etoposide is a chemotherapy drug that is given as a treatment for lung, ovarian and testicular cancer.

 

Ewing’s Sarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma is a cancer that arises in bone or soft tissue and commonly occurs in the pelvis, thigh and trunk of the body.

 

External Beam Radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy is a technique used to treat cancer by applying radiation using an external source, such as a linear accelerator

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F

 

Familial Polyposis

Familial polyposis is an inherited condition, causing polyps to grow in the colon or larger bowel. Although initially benign the polyps can become cancerous.

 

Fanconi’s Syndrome

Fanconi’s syndrome is an inherited condition causing impairment of
kidney function. The kidneys fail to reabsorb nutrients and there is
excess urination.

 

Femur

The femur is the thigh bone.

 

Fibromellar Hepatoma

Fibrolamellar hepatoma is a rare type of liver cell cancer, typically occurring in younger people. It is not linked to cirrhosis of the liver or other liver disease.

 

Fludarabine

Fludarabine is a chemotherapy drug that is highly effective in the treatment of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL).

 

5 Fluorouracil

5 Fluorouracil, or 5FU, is a drug usually given by injection and
used in chemotherapy to treat cancer in particular breast, bowel,
stomach and oesophageal cancers.

 

Flutamide

Flutamide is a chemotherapy drug, marketed as Eulexin, which prevents the stimulation of the growth of prostate cancer cells.

Follicular Lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
accounting for about 25% of all cases. Follicular lymphoma can occur
any time during adulthood, the average age being around 60 years old.

 

Foreign Bodies

A foreign body is an object that originated outside the body.

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Functional MRI Imaging

Functional MRI imaging is a special type of MRI scan. It is used to observe functioning in organs by detecting changes in chemical composition, blood flow or both.

 

G

 

Gall Bladder

The gall bladder is a small organ located underneath the liver and stores bile until it is required to aid in the digestion of fats.

 

Gamma Knife

A gamma knife is a device used to treat brain tumours. Using
specialized equipment a high dose of high-intensity gamma radiation is
directed at the tumour with surgical precision, to destroy the tumour
and leave the healthy tissue undamaged.

 

Gantry

The gantry is a frame supporting equipment, e.g. a linear accelerator.

 

Gardasil®

Gardasil® is the registered trade mark of a vaccine against certain types of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). It is designed to prevent infection from types 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV types 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancers, and HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90% of genital warts.

 

Gardner Syndrome

Gardner syndrome is a hereditary disease that results in the formation of polyps in the intestinal tract, if not removed these can develop in to cancer.

 

Gastrectomy

A gastrectomy is an operation to remove part or all of the stomach.

 

Gastric Cancer

Gastric cancer is cancer that develops in the stomach.

 

Gastrointestinal Malignancies

Gastrointestinal malignancies, or cancers, include cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, rectum and anus.

 

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST)

GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) or sarcoma develops in the muscle or connective tissue of the wall of the gut and makes up 1-3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies.

 

Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux

Gastro-oesophageal reflux, or acid reflux, occurs when the contents of the stomach are regurgitated into the oesophagus and the stomach acid damages the lining leading to irritation, or in some cases Barrett’s oesophagus.

 

Gastroscopy

A gastroscopy is an examination of the inside of the stomach using a
flexible telescope, which is passed through the mouth and oesophagus. A
gastroscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for
viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a
microscope for signs of disease.

 

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug used to treat certain types of breast, pancreatic, ovarian, and lung cancer.

 

Genito-urinary Tract

The genito-urinary tract is a collective name for the organs of the reproductive and urinary systems.

 

Germ Cell

A germ cell is a reproductive cell of the body. Germ cells generate eggs in females, and sperm in males.

 

Gleason Score

The Gleason score is a system of grading prostate cancer tissue
based on how it looks under a microscope. Gleason scores range from 2
to 10 and indicate how likely it is that a tumour will spread. A low
Gleason score means the cancer tissue is similar to normal prostate
tissue and the tumour is less likely to spread; a high Gleason score
means the cancer tissue is very different from normal and the tumour is
more likely to spread.

 

Glioblastoma Multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive form of primary brain
tumour, they are highly malignant and may become very large before any
symptoms develop.

 

Glioma

Gliomas are brain tumours arising from the supporting cells in the brain.

 

Goserelin

Goserelin is a drug that is used to block hormone production in the ovaries or testicles.

Granulocytes

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that contain small granules filled with enzymes, that can digest microorganisms.

 

Growth Hormone

Growth hormone is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth. Excess growth hormone causes a condition called acromegaly.

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H

 

Haemangioblastoma

A haemangioblastoma is a brain tumour that develops in the walls of
blood vessels, usually in the cerebellum. They are commonly
slow-growing tumours that do not spread to other regions of the brain.

 

Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is a disease caused by excess iron in the body. It
may lead to fatigue, joint pain or arthritis, impotence in men and loss
of menstruation in women.

 

Hard Palate

The hard palate is the roof of the mouth and separates the mouth and nose.

 

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium found in the stomach of patients with gastric ulcers and gastric cancer.
It is a gram negative bacillus which can be treated with antibiotics
although there is considerable controversy over the benefits of
treatment.

 

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an infection of the liver commonly caused by a virus.
Symptoms include an enlarged liver, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal
pain, and jaundice.

 

Hepatoblastoma

A hepatoblastoma is a type of liver tumour that occurs in infants and young children. It can be treated with surgery, adjuvant therapy and if necessary, a liver transplant.

 

Hepatoma

A hepatoma is a tumour developing from the cells of the liver.

 

Herbicides

Herbicides are chemicals used to kill plants (weed killers).

 

Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer

Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer, or Lynch syndrome, carries a higher risk of colorectal cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.

 

HIV

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that can lead to AIDS. AIDS causes the immune system to fail and the body becomes susceptible to life threatening infection.

 

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is a form cancer of the lymph nodes. It is described in more detail in the lymphoma section of this website.

 

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy is the replacement of oestrogen and
progesterone which are no longer being produced due to the menopause.
Hormone therapy is also used when other hormones (e.g. thyroid hormone)
are replaced by giving the hormone as a tablet or injection.

 

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

The human papilloma virus is a virus that infects the skin and may
cause warts, cancer or no symptoms whatsoever. They are all spread by
contact.

 

Hürthle Cells

Hürthle cells are cells that found in an uncommon type of thyroid tumour.

 

Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus and cervix, and
in some cases one or both of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

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I

 

Ifosfamide

Ifosfamide is a chemotherapy drug used to treat a number of cancers. It is given intravenously (IV).

 

Iliac Crest

The iliac crest is the long-curved ridge of the ilium, the uppermost part of the pelvis.

 

Imatinib

Imatinib is a man-made drug currently used for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), and a rare type of cancer known as gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). It is a type of monoclonal antibody.

 

Immunosuppressant Drugs

Immunosuppressant drugs are used to decrease the chance of a
transplanted organ being rejected. They work by blocking the immune
system so it is less likely to react against the new organ.

 

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is treatment using the immune system to destroy cancer cells.

 

Induction Phase

This is the first phase of treatment for some forms of leukaemia and
other cancers. During this phase aggressive treatment is used to
destroy the vast majority of cancer cells.

 

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas and prevents blood sugar levels from becoming dangerously high.

 

Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT)

IMRT is a type of 3-D radiation therapy that uses computer-generated
images to show the size and shape of the tumour. Thin beams of
radiation of different intensities are aimed at the tumour from many
angles. This type of radiation therapy reduces the damage to healthy
tissue near the tumour.

 

Intestine

The intestine is the portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus.

 

Intra-Operative Treatment

Treatment such as radiotherapy given during the course of an operation.

 

Intrathecal Chemotherapy

Intrathecal chemotherapy is a treatment using anti-cancer drugs are injected into the cerebrospinal fluid – the fluid filling the space between the thin layers of tissue (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord.

 

Isotope Bone Scan

An isotope bone scan uses an injection of radioactive material is
inserted into the vein, and images are taken using a gamma camera.

 

I.V.

IV stands for intra venous, or into a vein.

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J

 

Jaundice

Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, which can occur in many diseases. It is caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.

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K

 

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma develops in the tissues below the skin surface, or
in the mouth, nose, or anus. Tumours appear as raised lumps which are
purple, brown, or red, and may be painful. Kaposi’s sarcoma is
disfiguring, but not usually life threatening or disabling. It is
associated with AIDS.

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L

 

Laparoscope

A laparoscope is an instrument that is used to observe structures inside the abdomen or pelvis, inserted through small surgical incisions.

 

Larynx

The larynx is the voice box, and contains the vocal cords which vibrate to form sounds.

 

Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas are rare forms of cancer with cells that look like
the sort of muscle cells found in the gut. More information on
leiomyosarcomas can be found in the sarcoma section of this website.

 

Leukoplakia

Leukoplakia is a white patch that develops on the tongue or the
inside of the cheek due to chronic irritation It may disappear or in
some cases become cancerous.

 

Leuprorelin

Leuprorelin is a drug that decreases pituitary secretions.

Linear Accelerator

The linear accelerator (Linac) is source of powerful x-rays, used in
radiotherapy. Electrons produced in the machine are accelerated in a
straight line, hitting a metal target within the machine. This produces
high energy x-rays, which are then focussed into a beam that can be
used for treatment.

 

Liposarcomas

Liposarcomas are malignant tumours with cells that resemble fat cells.

 

Liquid-based Cytology

Liquid-based cytology is a technique for taking cells to examine for signs of cancer under a microscope.

 

Lobular Cancer

Lobular cancer develops in the lobules of the breast. More information on lobular cancer can be found in the breast cancer section of this website.

 

Lobules

Lobules are small structures in the breast where milk is produced.

 

Loop Electrical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

Loop Electrical Excision Procedure is a treatment where an electrical wire is used to remove abnormal tissue from the cervix.

 

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture is a procedure in which a thin needle is put into the lower part of the spine to collect cerebrospinal fluid or to give drugs.

 

Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy is a surgical procedure whereby a malignant tumour and surrounding tissue are removed usually from the breast.

 

Lycopene

Lycopene is a red pigment found in tomatoes and some fruits. It is an antioxidant and may help prevent some types of cancer.

 

Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes are small collection of lymphocytes
which filter the lymphatic fluid and are principle sites where immune
reactions are initiated, as well as structures commonly infiltrated by
cancers from nearby structures.

 

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is a network of small vessels that carry a fluid called lymph. It includes the lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus, bone marrow and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.

 

Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Lymphoblastic Lymphoma is a form of T-cell lymphoma. More information on lymphoblastic lymphoma can be found in the lymphoma section of this website.

 

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are white blood cells which play an important and integral role in the body’s defences.

 

Lymphoedema

Lymphoedema is a condition in which excess fluid collects in tissue
and causes swelling. It may occur in the arm or leg after lymph vessels
or lymph nodes in the armpit or groin are removed or treated with radiation.

 

Lynch Syndrome

Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colon Cancer, or Lynch syndrome, carries a higher risk of colorectal cancer and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.

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M

 

Maintenance Phase

The maintenance phase of treatment for leukaemia and other diseases
follows induction and consolidation phases of treatment and is given
often for one or two years to prevent the disease from returning.

 

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a form of soft tissue sarcoma occurring mainly in adults.

 

Mediastinoscopy

Mediastinoscopy is a procedure in which a tube is used to examine
the organs in the area behiind the breast bone. A mediastinoscope is an
instrument with a light and a lens for viewing.

 

Medical Oncologist

A medical oncologist is a specialist physician that is concerned
with all aspects of treating a cancer patient, including chemotherapy,
treatment planning and advice.

 

Medical Physicist

Medical physicists are scientists who supervise the dose of radiation to treat a cancer tumour.

 

Medulloblastoma

A medulloblastoma is a malignant tumour of the cerebellum found in children.

 

Melanomas

Melanomas are malignant tumours of melanocytes, which are most
commonly found in the skin but can occur in the bowel and the eye.

 

Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates other hormones and helps maintain the circadian rhythm or body clock.

 

Meninges

The meninges are three layers of membranes that envelop and protect the central nervous system.

 

Meningiomas

Meningiomas are benign tumours that develop in the meninges.

 

Mesenteric Artery

The mesenteric artery is an abdominal branch of the aorta that supplies blood to the intestine.

 

Mesorectum

The mesorectum is a fold of the peritoneum that connects the rectum to the sacrum. Lymph nodes in the mesorectum are usually removed during surgery for rectal cancer.

 

Mesothelioma

A mesothelioma is a tumour affecting the lining of the pleura or
lining of the chest cavity. Exposure to asbestos particles in the air
increases the risk of developing malignant mesothelioma.

 

Metastases

Metastases are the spread of tumours from their original sites to other areas on the body.

 

Metastatic Tumours

Metastatic tumours are tumours that develop in other areas of the body due to spread usually through the blood and lymphatic system.

 

Methotrexate

Methotrexate is a drug given as a treatment for many types of cancer.

 

Milk Ducts

The milk ducts are a network of tubes in the breast that allow milk
to be transported from the lobes where it is produced to the nipple.

 

Mitomycin

Mitomycin is a drug given as a treatment for many types of cancer.

 

Mitozantrone (Mitoxantrone)

Mitozantrone is a drug given as a treatment for many types of cancer.

 

Mixed Glioma

A mixed glioma is a tumour that contains more than one type of brain cell and displays characteristics of each type of glioma. More information on mixed gliomas can be found in the brain tumour section of this website.

 

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies
produced from clones of a single parent cell and are designed to bind
to a single substance. It is possible to create monoclonal antibodies
that specifically bind to receptors on cancer cells interfering with
their ability to grow and divide.

 

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Scan

An MRI scan is non-invasive test like an x-ray which uses a magnetic
field and radio waves to create images (pictures) of tissues, organs
and bones inside the body.

 

Mucosa

The mucosa is a moist tissue that lines many internal surfaces of the body. Glands in the mucosa secrete mucus.

 

Multidisciplinary Team

A multidisciplinary team is a team of health professionals
responsible for the care of patients, usually including radiation,
medical and surgical oncologists, pathologists, radiologists,
radiographers, physicists, nurses, technicians and others.

 

Multi-Leaf Collimator

A multi-leaf collimator (MLC) is a device made up of individual
metal sheets that can be moved to shape radiotherapy beams in treatment.

 

Mycosis Fungoides

Mycosis fungoides is a very rare type of skin cancer.

 

Myelosuppression

Myelosuppression is a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets being produced. Myelosuppression is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

 

Myxoid Liposarcoma

Myxoid Liposarcoma is a particular form of liposarcoma.

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N

 

Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis is a hereditary condition that causes tumours, particularly acoustic neuromas, to grow on nerve tissue.

 

Nitrosamines

Nitrosamines are chemicals found in many foods, especially beer,
fish, meat and cheese products preserved with nitrite pickling salt.
They are associated with an increased risk of some cancers.

 

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are a group of lymphomas without Reed-Sternberg cells. There are many types of lymphoma, described in more detail in the lymphoma section of this website.

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O

 

Occult Blood Test

An occult blood test is a check for blood in the faeces.

 

Occupational Therapist

Occupational therapists help people to regain or maintain health and
wellbeing and identify ways to make daily tasks easier for patients.
The range of help provided is as wide as the needs of the people they
help.

 

Oesophagoscopy

A test to look inside the oesopahgus using a flexible telescope inserted through the mouth.

 

Oesophagus

The oesophagus or gullet is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.

 

Oestrogen-Progesterone Preparations

These are a form of hormone replacement therapy, used to replace natural production of these hormones after the menopause.

 

Oligodendroglioma

Oligodendrogliomas are tumours found in adults and develop from
oligodendrocytes, which make myelin (the substance that covers the long
nerve axons). Oligodendrogliomas vary in how fast they grow and whether
or not they spread to other parts on the nervous system.

 

Omentum

The omentum is found in the abdomen and made up of a thin sheet called the peritoneum that covers most of the organs in the abdomen. Blood vessels and nerves run through the omentum to the intestines.

 

Oncogene

An oncogene is a protein encoding gene used to produce monoclonal antibodies.

 

Oral Cavity

The oral cavity is another term for the mouth.

 

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcomas are the most common type of bone cancer. More details on osteosarcomas can be found in the sarcoma section of this website.

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P

 

Paclitaxel

A chemotherapy drug that works by stopping cells dividing. It is used to treat breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is also used together with another drug to treat non-small cell lung cancer.

 

Paget’s Disease

Paget’s disease is a disease of the bones, in which they become softer and weaker, and increases the risk of osteosarcoma.

 

Paget’s Disease of the Breast

Paget’s disease of the breast, (also Paget’s disease of the nipple),
is a condition resembling eczema, but is in fact an uncommon form of
cancer.

 

Pancoast Tumour

A pancoast tumour is a type of lung cancer, that is situated at the top end of either the right or left lung.

 

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas caused by digestive enzymes becoming active inside the pancreas and damaging the tissue.

 

Pathologist

A pathologist is a doctor specialising in diagnosing diseases by
examining cells, tissue, blood, and body fluids using sophisticated
laboratory techniques.

 

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma is a group of aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas that originate in T-cell lymphocytes. It is also called mature T-cell lymphoma. It can occur at any age from young adulthood to old age. It is slightly more common in men than in women.

 

Peritoneum

The peritoneum is thin membrane that lines the abdominal and
pelvic cavities, and covers the intestines and most of the abdominal
organs. It is composed of layer of mesothelium supported by a thin
layer of connective tissue.

 

Pernicious Anaemia

Pernicious Anaemia is a form of anaemia caused by failure to absorb vitamin B12.

 

Pharyngeal Cancer

Pharyngeal cancer is cancer of the pharynx, also known as throat cancer.

 

Pharynx

The pharynx is the part of the throat that begins behind the nose and ends at the larynx and beginning of the oesophagus.

 

Philadelphia Chromosome

The Philadelphia Chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific chromosomal abnormality that is associated with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).

 

Pineal Gland

The pineal gland is located in the brain and secretes melatonin.

 

Pineal Gland Tumours

Pineal gland tumours are rare, arising in the pineal gland, which makes melatonin.

 

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is located in the brain and secretes hormones that regulate homeostasis in the body.

 

Plasma

Plasma is the liquid component of blood in which all cells and nutrients are suspended.

 

Polyphenol

Polyphenol is a chemical found in many plants and gives some
flowers, fruits, and vegetables their colour. Polyphenols have
antioxidant activity.

 

Polyps

Polyps are abnormal growths of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.

 

Portal Vein

The portal vein is a large vein through which oxygen-depleted blood flows to the liver from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, gall bladder and the spleen.

 

Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)

Positron emission tomography, or a PET scan, uses small amounts of
radioactive material to detect cancer and other diseases in the body.
Different radioactive materials are given as an injection or a drink.
Once in the body, the material concentrates in certain tissues giving
off focal radiation which can be detected by the scanner to produce
visual images. Experts can then use these images to help make a
diagnosis.

 

Prednisolone

Prednisolone is a manmade corticosteroid, a drug that is used to
treat many different diseases including some forms of arthritis,
autoimmune diseases, blood cell cancers (leukaemias) and lymph system
cancers (lymphomas).

 

Prednisone

Prednisone is a type of corticosteroid
that is used to treat cancer. It is particularly effective as an
immunosuppressant. It can be delivered orally, or by intramuscular
injection.

 

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour (PNET)

Medulloblastoma is the commonest form of primitive neuroectodermal
tumour. The tumours tend to grow in the cerebellum (responsible for
balance and coordination) and are the most common brain tumour in
children, but can also affect young adults. Medulloblastomas can grow very quickly and may spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord through the cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Prolactinomas

Prolactinomas are benign tumours of the pituitary gland.

 

Prostate Gland

The prostate gland is found only in men. It is made up of 30 to 50
individual glands that produce a milky fluid, discharged when semen is
ejaculated. The prostate is about the size of a small egg and lies
under the bladder in the pelvis. The urethra – the tube that empties
urine from the bladder – passes through the prostate gland.

 

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland.
PSA is present in small quantities in the blood plasma of normal men,
and is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer and in other
prostate disorders. A blood test to measure PSA is the most effective
test currently available for the early detection of prostate cancer.

 

Proton Radiotherapy

Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy, using energetic protons,
accelerated by a particle accelerator, onto the target tumour. These
particles damage the DNA of cells, ultimately causing their death.

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R

 

Radiation Oncologist

A radiation oncologist is a specialist doctor treating cancer using
radiotherapy treatment. Cancer treatment often involves more than one
form of treatment and in most centres cancer is treated by a
multidisciplinary team. They are also called radiologists in some
countries.

 

Radiologist

A radiologist is a doctor trained in the use of x-rays, ultrasound, CT, and MRI scans as well as other imaging techniques to diagnose, treat and monitor various diseases including cancer.

 

Radiotherapy Nurse

Radiotherapy Nurses are health professionals who work as an integral part of the multidisciplinary team,
whose responsibilities may include implementing prescribed radiotherapy
treatment, documenting all treatments given and maintaining work
records, identifying patient teaching needs, monitoring and performing
quality control checks on equipment and all related duties.

 

Radiotherapy Technician

Radiotherapy Technicians are health professionals who work as an integral part of the multidisciplinary team,
whose responsibilities may include implementing prescribed radiotherapy
treatment, documenting all treatments given and maintaining work
records, identifying patient teaching needs, monitoring and performing
quality control checks on equipment and all related duties.

 

Radiotherapy Radiographer

Radiotherapy Radiographers are health professionals who work as an integral part of the multidisciplinary team,
whose responsibilities may include implementing prescribed radiotherapy
treatment, documenting all treatments given and maintaining work
records, identifying patient teaching needs, monitoring and performing
quality control checks on equipment and all related duties.

 

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen around the body.

 

Reed Sternberg Cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are large lymphocytes with abnormal nuclei typically found in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but can also be found in other conditions.

 

Remission

A remission is a decrease in, or disappearance of, signs and
symptoms of cancer, although the cancer may not have been totally
eliminated from the body. In partial remission, some, but not all,
signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. In complete remission,
all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared.

 

Retinoblastoma

A retinoblastoma is a tumour of the retina, at the back of the eye.
Retinoblastomas contain very primitive cells. These tumours usually
affect children under five and can affect one or both eyes. 40% of
retinoblastomas are hereditary.

 

Rhabdomyosarcomas

Rhabdomyosarcomas are tumours that arise in the skeletal muscles.

 

Rituximab

Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody, used in the treatment of lymphomas.

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S

 

Sacrum

The sacrum is a large triangular-shaped bone at the base of the spine, located just above the coccyx or tail bone.

 

Salpingo-Oophorectomy

A salpingo-oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

 

Sarcomas

Sarcomas are tumours arising in the soft tissue or connective tissue of the body. For more details see the sarcoma section of the website.

 

Segmentectomy

A segmentectomy is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ
or gland. It may also be used to remove a tumour and normal tissue
around it. In lung cancer surgery, a segmentectomy refers to the
removing a section of one lobe of a lung.

 

Selenium

Selenium is a non-metallic element that is required in trace amounts in the diet.

 

Sigmoidoscope

A sigmoidoscope is a tube-like instrument used to examine the inside of the lowest part of the colon – the sigmoid colon. A sigmoidoscope has a light and a lens for viewing and may have a tool to remove tissue.

 

Sigmoidoscopy

Sigmoidoscopy is the use of a telescope to look inside the rectum and anal canal.

 

Sinuses

The paranasal sinuses are air filled cavities in the face that
moisten the air we breathe and add resonance to our voices. They are
named according to the bones they lie in: maxillary sinuses, frontal
sinuses, the ethmoid sinuses, and the sphenoid sinuses.

 

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses usually due to infection.

 

Skin Grafts

A skin graft is skin transplant often from a different area of the
patient but sometimes using skin from another person or sometimes
another animal.

 

Skin Lymphomas

Skin lymphomas are rare forms of lymphoma – the most common being mycosis fungoides.

 

Speech and Language Therapist

Speech and language therapists assess and treat speech, language and
communication problems in people of all ages with all sorts of
communication problems including those caused by cancer or its
treatment.

 

Sputum

Sputum is the name given to mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs by coughing.

 

Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Squamous cell carcinomas are cancers developing from skin cells.

 

Staging

The stage of a cancer is a way of saying how far the cancer has
grown and spread. Staging a cancer help to predict how a cancer might
respond to treatment. As a general rule, the earlier the stage and the
lower the grade of a cancer, the better the outlook.

 

Stem Cell

A stem cell is a cell from which all other types of cells develop.

 

Stem Cell Transplant

Stem cell transplants are used to replace blood-forming cells destroyed by cancer treatment. The stem cells are given after treatment to allow the patient to continue to produce healthy blood cells.

 

Stereotactic Radiotherapy

Stereotactic radiotherapy is a form of external radiotherapy for
treating brain tumours. Radiotherapy is given from hundreds of
different angles so that high dose treatment can be delivered to the
tumour whilst causing minimal harm to surrounding healthy. Computerised
scans locate the precise area for treatment. Generally several
treatment sessions are required.

 

Steroids

Steroids are a family of chemical that include cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. Manmade steroids are commonly used to treat inflammation of the joints and organs, as well as some forms of cancer.

 

Stoma

A stoma is a surgically-created opening from an area inside the body, to the outside.

 

Stromal Tumours

See Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) above.

 

Sunitinib

Sunitinib is a monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

 

Surgical Oncologist

Surgical oncologists are surgeons who specialise in the treatment of particular forms of cancer.

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T

 

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is a hormonal therapy used to treat breast cancer.

 

T Cells

T-cells are a type of lymphocyte, a type of white cell found in the blood. T-cells mature in the thymus.

 

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the thyroid gland.

 

Tibia

The tibia is the larger of the two bones of the lower leg.

 

TNM System

The TNM system is a way of staging cancers. The stage of a cancer is a way of saying how far the cancer has grown and spread. As a general rule, the earlier the stage and the lower the grade of a cancer, the better the outlook.

 

Tomotherapy

Tomotherapy is a form of CT-Guided IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy).
A thin beam is rotated around the body, entering from many directions,
while the patient’s couch simultaneously moves into the machine. This
effectively results in thousands of small treatment beams of different
intensities entering the body, converging on the tumour.

 

Trachea

The trachea, or windpipe, connects the lungs to the pharynx.

 

Trachelectomy

A trachelectomy is surgical procedure to remove the cervix (the part
of the uterus forming a canal between the uterus and the vagina).The
upper part of the vagina and certain pelvic lymph nodes may also be
removed. It is also called a cervicectomy.

 

Trastuzumab

Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that acts on the HER2/neu (erbB2) receptor. Trastuzumab’s principal is used as an anticancer therapy in breast cancer.

 

Tyrosine Kinase

A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group
from one form compound found in human cells to another. This fuction is
important in the treatment of same cancers.

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U

 

Ultrasound Scan

An ultrasound scan is a procedure in which high-energy sound waves
(ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make
echoes. The echo patterns are shown on the screen of an ultrasound
machine, forming a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.

 

Undifferentiated Carcinoma

This is a term to describe tumours with cells that do not closely resemble normal cells of that tissue type.

 

Urostomy

A urostomy is an operation to create an opening from inside the body
to the outside, to allow urine to be excreted from the body.

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V

 

Verrucous Carcinoma

Verrucous Carcinomas are cancer-shaped like warts.

Vestibular Schwannoma

Vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas
are benign tumours that develop in the nerve that connects the ear to
the brain (acoustic nerve). Symptoms, when they occur, include problems
with hearing and balance.

 

Vinblastine

Vinblastine is a drug given as a treatment for some types of cancer including leukaemia, lymphoma, breast and lung cancer.

 

Vincristine

Vincristine is a drug given as a treatment for some types of cancer including leukaemia, lymphoma, breast and lung cancer.

 

Vinorelbine

Vinorelbine is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat some forms of cancer.

 

Vinyl Chloride

Vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen causing an increased risk of liver, brain, lung cancer, as well as some cancers of the blood.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is a vitamin that is important for the healthy function of the brain and nervous system as well as formation of the blood.

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W

 

Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma

It is a very low-grade malignant tumour of adipose tissue, with almost no potential to metastasise. It is also known as Atypical Lipoma.

 

Whipple Procedure

The ‘Whipple Procedure’ is an operation used to treat pancreatic cancer. The head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the stomach, and other nearby tissues are removed. It is also called a pancreatoduodenectomy.

 

White Blood Cells

White blood cells are found in the blood and lymph vessels and defend the body against infectious diseases.

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